Hamedan, the center of Hamedan Province, is a mountainous city in western Iran and one of the metropolises of the country. The city is located at the foot of Mount Alvand with the height of 1, 741 meters above the sea level is one of Iran’s cold cities. Hamedan City is Iran’s oldest city and one of the oldest cities of the world. The parlimant of Iran chose Hamedan as “The Capital of History and Culture” in 2007. However, the oldest artifacts in Hegmataneh archaeological area as well as the inscriptions of Ganjnameh are related to the Achaemenid era. The city was also one of the capitals of the country at the time of the Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanid, Seljuk and Buyid.
Currently, the province of Hamedan due to its historical-cultural centers and tourist attractions is known as the fifth city of Iran. There are also many academic centers in Hamedan such as; Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan University, Islamic Azad University, Payam-e Noor which have made this city as one of the scientific poles of Iran. Avicenna’s Tomb is a symbole of Hamedan as well as a symbol of Iranian background in the world of culture and science. The city is considered as the fourteenth most populous in Iran withe the approximate population of 650,000.
The first time which the name of the city was mentioned dates back in about 1100 BC, as “Amedaneh”. The City has had other names such as; Hegmataneh, Hegmatan, Ekbataneh, Ekbatana, Amedaneh, Anadana. The name “Amedaneh” was seen in Assyrian inscriptions. The name should have been derived from “Mede”, as the Assyrians were using “Amaday” as the name of the Medes”. Hence Amedaneh means the location of Medes and where Medes lived. Hegmataneh in ancient Persian means “the Place of Assembly”. Ekbatan is Hegmataneh in Greek with different pronunciation. The Name Hegmataneh changed to “Hamedan” in Sassanian period.
The First establishment of Hamedan is related to Diako the king of the Medes. The city was ruined during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, but later Cyrus the great rebuilt it. During the Parthian when Ctesiphon was the capital, Hamadan was the summer residence of Parthian kings. The Parthain Zahak castle and the stone statue of Lion in Hamedan are the only surviving element of Parthian Era. Sassanians built their summer mansions after the Parthians in the city. Hamedan was captured after the invasion of Arabs and was also badly damaged during Buyid dynasty. The Seljuks transferred their capital from Baghdad to this city and Hamedan remained their capital for fifty years. After the Mongol invasion there was nothing left of the city but the ruins. In the Safavid era the city was enjoying the blessings of prosperity. After the fall of Safavids, the city was conquered by the Ottoman Empire but after six years it was recovered by Nadir Shah.
Due to its position on the main roads of West of Iran, Hamedan has been considered in terms of trade in recent centuries. The city’s location on the Silk road is worth mentioning.
The climate here is mild, and generally warm and temperate. The rain in Hamedan falls mostly in the winter, with relatively little rain in the summer.
Top Tourist Attractions:
Ali Sadr Cave, Avicenna Mausoleum, Mausoleum of BabaTaher, Tomb of Esther and Mordechai, Cultural Heritage and Tourism Base of Hegmataneh, Hamadan Stone Lion, Rangin Kaman Amusement Park, Stephen Gregory Church, Alvand Mountain, Hamedan Museum of Natural History and etc.The gallery was not found!